Document Actions

MSE Seminars Fall

 
Aug. 29, 2014 2:30 p.m. - 3:25 p.m. -"Origami Material Design: Crossroads of Art and Engineering"
Speaker: Phil Buskohl, Air Force Research labs (AFRL)
Location: Zimmer Hall, Room 414
Sponsored By: Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering
College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Cincinnati
 
The functionality of an engineering design is intrinsic to its geometry form or shape. By extension, engineering structures that change shape may possess multiple functions and have the additional benefit of tunable geometry for a specific task. The ancient art form of paper folding, known as origami, offers insight for the design of shape changing structures. Origami structures by definition can “shape-shift” between multiple geometric configurations that are predefined by a pattern of folds, which reduces an arbitrary 3D transformation into a series of coordinated rotations. Furthermore, origami structures can be fabricated and transported in the flat state, offering a clear advantage for streamlined manufacturing and efficient use of material. However, transferring origami principles to engineering design raises complex questions that are inherently multidisciplinary: What is a fold? How do different materials fail in folding? What is the optimal fold pattern for a target folded shape? What is the optimal fold stiffness distribution? How can we remotely actuate an origami structure with stimuli responsive materials? Materials science, mechanics, design engineering, and computer science all interest in the solution to these questions. Our approach at AFRL is to build a design and analysis toolset by combining a mechanical model of the origami structure with topology optimization. With this toolset we have designed an origami actuator, analyzed the effects of fold stiffness on a snap-thru structure, and optimized the director pattern a liquid crystal elastomer network. The failure behaviors of several polymers under folding have also been experimentally investigated with a custom mechanical creasing test, which will directly feed into further refinements of the mechanical model. Together, these tools bring the ascetically pleasing design concepts of origami art closer to full use as a engineering design platform for shape changing structures.
 
phil buskohl
 
Speaker Bio
Phil Buskohl, Air Force Research Laboratory
Phil Buskohl is a Post-doctoral research scientist with the Air Force Research labs (AFRL) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, OH. His current research includes the translation of origami design principles to engineering applications, the dynamics of self-oscillating gels, and mechanical modeling of stimuli responsive materials. He received his PhD from Cornell University in the field of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics where he studied the mechanical regulation of embryonic heart development.
 
 
Sept. 5, 2014 2:30 p.m. - 3:25 p.m. -"RNA Nanotechnology and siRNA/drug delivery"
Speaker: Peixuan Guo, University of Kentucky
Location: Zimmer Hall, Room 414
Sponsored By: Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering
College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Cincinnati
 
The research in my lab includes both basic research and practical, or commercial, applications. We try to answer basic questions on the mechanisms of viral assembly and DNA packaging with phi29 nanomotor. The approaches include molecular biology, chemistry, biophysics, computer modeling, and mathematical quantification to investigate fundamental questions such as RNA/protein or RNA/DNA interactions, macromolecular structure and function, nanomotor performance, and energy transformation. We have constructed a functional nanomotor with purified components. We have been able to convert the DNA-filled complexes into infectious virions in the test tube with the exclusive use of proteins from purified or synthetic components. With such a functional synthetic system, we are able to further the study of the mechanisms of the phi29 DNA packaging motor in depth. We then apply the knowledge derived from basic studies to solve practical problems, such as design of nanodevices, applications in nanotechnology, drug/gene/siRNA delivery and therapy of cancer, viral infection and genetic diseases, development of molecular vaccines, diagnosis of diseases, detection of pathogens and single molecule sensing of the environment, single DNA sensing, and design of chips or arrays for computer storage.
 

peixuan guo

Speaker Bio
Peixuan Guo, UK
Dr. Peixuan Guo received his training in both human and animal medicine as well as microbiology in his early career. He was a technician in Minnesota Immunology Center from 1983 to 1984. He obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota in 1987 majoring in Microbiology with a minor degree in Genetics and a research program in Biophysics/Virology; was a post-doc at NIH Laboratory of Viral Diseases led by Bernard Moss, a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the leader in vaccinia virus research. He joinedPurdue University as an assistant professor of Molecular Virology in 1990, was tenured in 1993, became a full Professor in 1997, and was honored as a Purdue Faculty Scholar in 1998. He was the founder and director of Purdue Interdisciplinary Graduate Program of Virus Research and Purdue Interdisciplinary Graduate Programs of Nanobiotechnology. He served as the Director of the NIH Nanomedicine Development Centerfrom 2006-2011. He was recruited to the University of Cincinnati as Dane and Mary Louise Miller Endowed Chair of Biomedical Engineering in 2007, and moved toUniversity of Kentucky as William Farish Endowed Chair in Nanobiotechnology in 2012, and currently is the UK Director of Nanobiotechnology Center, and Director of NCI Cancer Nanotechnology Platform Partnership Program in RNA Nanotechnology for Cancer Therapy

 
 
Sept. 12, 2014 2:30 p.m. - 3:25 p.m. - " Carbon Nanotube Based Artificial Hair Sensor for Omni-directional Detection of Low Speed Airflow"
Speaker:Gregory J. Ehlert, Air Force Research Laboratory
Location: Zimmer Hall, Room 414
Sponsored By: Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering
College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Cincinnati
 
Sensory hairs are common throughout the natural world, serving diverse functions in varied environments. Hairs located on the wings of bats are thought to detect the flow pattern of air during flight for enhanced navigation and aerobatic-like flight control. This rapid detection of small-scale airflow variations via the hair shaft deflection of a single sensor or as part of distributed arrays contributes to natural fliers having greater flight agility than current engineered systems and is the inspiration for the development of bioinspired flow sensing systems. Biologically-inspired artificial hair sensors (AHS) attempt to mimic the awareness and rapid response to external fluid flows of natural flyers. This seminar will introduce a highly-sensitive “hair plug” style AHS device for the omni-directional detection of low-speed airflow. An assembled device consists of a single CNT-coated microfiber (7-25 μm diameter) embedded in a glass microcapillary, avoiding MEMs fabrication techniques. The AHS response to the free stream velocity change was a change in resistance, closely resembling the ramps and constant velocity holds of the free stream cycling over nominal velocities ranging from <1 to 10 ms-1. Over this velocity range, we find a proportional and repeatable relationship between flow velocity at the hair tip and resistance output with a sensitivity of 1.3-1.8% resistance change per 1 m.s-1 change in air speed. This large response is between 5 – 100 times more sensitive than AHS devices previously reported.
 
Speaker Bio
Gregory J. Ehlert, Air Force Research Laboratory
Dr. Gregory J. Ehlert is currently a materials research engineer in the Composites Branch of the Materials and Manufacturing Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory. He earned his Ph.D. from University of Florida (2012), M.S.E from Arizona State University (2009), and B.S. from Michigan Technological University (2007), all in Mechanical Engineering. Dr. Ehlert’s research interests include organic matrix composite materials, multifunctional composites, and hierarchical fibers.
 
 
 
Sept. 19, 2014 2:30 p.m. - 3:25 p.m. -" Carbon Nanotube Based Artificial Hair Sensor for Omni-directional Detection of Low Speed Airflow"
Speaker:Michael Cassir, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris (ENSCP)
Location: Zimmer Hall, Room 414
Sponsored By: Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering
College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Cincinnati
 
High-temperature fuel cells are strategic devices for co-generation due to their efficiencies and flexibility, but they are still facing difficulties of full commercialization, due to poor yields, durability and costs. The main issues are related to the selection of adapted materials in order to ensure chemical and mechanical stability, accelerated kinetics and degradation protection. After a rapid view on the state-of the art materials in molten carbonate fuel cells, MCFC, and solid oxide fuel cells, SOFC, we will focus on the role of thin functional layers, which are becoming a key point for improving interface reactions. The role of micro- or nano-strutured thin films can be diverse: protective layers for MCFC (carbonate corrosion) and SOFC (diffusion or electronic barriers), bond layers between electrodes and interconnects and catalytic layers. Moreover for SOFCs, thin-layered electrolytes can be envisaged for micro fuel cells systems as well as active electrolyte or electrode layers to improve both charge and mass transport. In paralel, high-temperature water electrolysis cells operating as a reverse SOFC are becoming an important issue for the efficient production of hydrogen. Some examples will be introduced outlining the key aspects for improving their performance and understanding degradation and ageing issues. Finally, we will mention briefly new concepts/materials related to high-temperature devices, such as Direct Carbon Fuel Cells, composite electrolyte oxide/carbonates combining MCFC/SOFC technologies and CO2 valorisation.
 
michael cassir
 
Speaker Bio
Michael Cassir, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris (ENSCP)
Professor Cassir is the Head of the Electrochemistry of Extreme Media Research Team. Between 2009 and 2013 he was the Head of the Electrochemistry, Chemistry of Interfaces and Modeling for energy Laboratories. He was the Head of Department of Analytical Chemistry in Mexico (UNAM) and Co-Director of The Electrochemistry and Analytical Chemistry Center. He is a Member of the National
Committee for the National Center for Scientific Research. He has published about 200 scientific papers, 125 in peer-reviewed journals; 7 Book Chapters; 2 Patents. His areas of expertise include Analytical Chemistry, Electrochemistry, Functional thin Layers, Fuel Cells, Batteries, and Catalysis.
 
 
 
Sept. 26, 2014 2:30 p.m. - 3:25 p.m. - "Stimuli-Responsive Liquid Crystalline Materials Towards Optics and Origami"
Speaker:Timothy J. White, Air Force Research Laboratory
Location: Zimmer Hall, Room 414
Sponsored By: Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering
College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Cincinnati
 
Liquid crystalline materials are ubiquitous stimuli-responsive materials that are the basis of the $2B display industry. In this seminar, I will detail recent efforts focused on extending the distinctive properties of these materials to applications ranging from optics to morphing structural elements derived from origami tesselations. The seminar will begin by detailing recent efforts in which exceptionally large range reflection notch tuning (up to 1200 nm) and dynamic bandwidth control in polymer stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals have been observed. The talk will end by discussing the synthesis and characterization of both glassy and elastomeric liquid crystalline polymer networks to yield monolithic, shape-changing structures triggered with both heat and light.
 


timothy j. white

 
Speaker Bio
Timothy J. White, Air Force Research Laboratory
Timothy J. White received a B.A. in Chemistry in 2002 from Central College and a Ph.D. in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering in 2006 from the University of Iowa. He currently is a senior research engineer and leader of the “Responsive Photonic Materials” (RPM) group at the Air Force Research Laboratory in the Materials and Manufacturing Directorate. Dr. White was recently honored with the 2012 Air Force Early Career Award, the 2013 American Chemical Society PMSE Division Award for “Cooperative Research in Applied Polymer Science”, and the 2013 SPIE Early Career Achievement award. His research currently focuses on range of topics relating to polymers, liquid crystals, and polymer/liquid crystal composites with specific emphasis on the development of autonomous optical and mechanical systems.
 
 
 
Oct. 3, 2014 2:30 p.m. - 3:25 p.m. - "Emerging Revolutionary Role of Photovoltaics in Energy Sector "
Speaker:Rajendra Singh, Clemson University,
Location: Zimmer Hall, Room 414
Sponsored By: Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering
College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Cincinnati
 
With the advent of low-cost solar panels and our ability to generate, store and use electrical energy locally without the need for long-range transmission, the world is about to witness transformational changes in electricity infrastructure. The six D’s driver of photovoltaics (PV) revolution are: digitized, deceptive, disruptive dematerialized, demonetized, and democratized (http://www.forbes.com/sites/peterdiamandis/2014/09/02/solar-energy-revolution-a-massive-opportunit).
The use of PV as source of direct current (DC) power reduces the cost and improves the reliability of PV
system. DC microgrid and DC nanogrid based on PV and battery storage can provide sustainable electric
power to all human beings in equitable fashion. The electricity industry in developed economies is on the
cusp of a dramatic transformation driven by a series of changes that includes emergence of rooftop solar
and battery storage as the dominant distributed generation source, real time grid monitoring, emergence of
microgrid and nanogrid in place of integrated electric grid, improved energy efficiency, advantages of
direct current in place of alternating current, cyber and grid security, climate control and weather tolerant
electric infrastructures. The continuous decrease in the cost of photovoltaics (PV) generated electricity is
now making it possible to eradicate global energy poverty. The key objective of this seminar is to highlight the specific research areas in materials, processing and manufacturing of photovoltaic devices and systems that have further transformational capabilities.
 


rajendra singh

 
Speaker Bio
Rajendra Singh, Clemson University
With proven success in operations, project/program leadership, R&D, product/process commercialization, and start-ups, Dr. Singh is a leading photovoltaics (PV) and semiconductor expert with over 35 years of industrial and academic experience of photovoltaic and semiconductor industries. From solar cells to integrated circuits, he has led the work on semiconductor and photovoltaic device materials and processing by manufacturable innovation and defining critical path. His current key focus is to eradicate global energy poverty by using photovoltaics electricity. He has received a number of international wards. Photovoltaics World (October 2010) selected him as one of the 10 Global “Champions of Photovoltaic Technology”. Dr. Singh is 2014 recipient of the SPIE Technology Achievement Award. On April 17, 2014 White House honored him as “Champion of Change” for Solar Deployment. He is a Fellow of IEEE, SPIE, AAAS and ASM.
 
 
 
 
Oct. 17, 2014 2:30 p.m. - 3:25 p.m. - " This is General Electric Aviation"
Speaker:Michael, Schulte, General Electric Aviation
Location: Zimmer Hall, Room 414
Sponsored By: Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering
College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Cincinnati
 
GE is an advanced technology, services and finance company taking on the world's toughest challenges. Dedicated to innovation in energy, health, transportation and infrastructure, GE operates in more than 100 countries and employs about 300,000 people worldwide. GE Aviation is a world-leading provider of jet and turboprop engines, components and integrated systems for commercial, military, business and general aviation aircraft, and ship propulsion applications. GE’s customers are builders and operators of military and civil aircraft, including large transports, fighters, UAVs, helicopters and regional and business jets. At GE Aviation, we are imagination at work; whether we’re manufacturing components for our GEnx engines or driving innovation in fuel and noise reduction.
GE Aviation has a global service network to support many product offerings with the best people and the best technologies. GE Aviation teams are dedicated to turning imaginative ideas into advances in aviation that solve some of the world’s toughest problems. GE Aviation is a dynamic environment where our ongoing, substantial investment in research and development keeps us moving forward. At GE, developing people is embedded in our culture and integral to our growth with collaborative teams of the highest caliber talent, utilizing cutting-edge technology and processes. GE is a diverse work environment that makes innovations a reality.
 
Speaker Bio
Michael, Schulte, General Electric Aviation
Dr. Schulte has over eighteen years of experience managing technical investigations of polymeric and composite materials for government, automotive, aerospace, and medical applications. He has twenty-five technical publications, fifteen U. S. and International patents, and is often an invited lecturer on composite aerospace materials. He joined the Advanced Composites Technology group at General Electric Aviation in 2005 where his roles included Development and Materials Applications Engineer (MAE) and Process Certifying Agent (CA). His Leadership experience includes Manager of the Repair MAE Group and Airfoils Laboratories, Composite Technician Team Leader and PMC Technology Development Leader for the Materials and Process Engineering Department (MPED). Prior professional experience includes a six year tenure with the Advanced Materials Applications (AMA) group at Battelle Memorial Institute in Columbus, Ohio.
Dr. Schulte has extensive materials development and processing experience in commercial and government programs.This includes: FAA substantiation of ballistic containment materials, synthesis and characterization of ionically-conductive polymers for fuel cells, high refractive index materials, photonic materials integration, aircraft engine fire root-cause investigations, and biodegradable plastics development. Investigations of materials for military semi-permeable battery separator membranes resulted in several novel materials compositions. His technical experience also includes failure analysis of adhesives in optical components for medical applications, development of anti-reflective and environmentally stable coatings, ultrasonically-assisted injection molding, non-invasive detection of bulk defects in polymeric materials using ultrasonics, and medical device and product development. He is the recipient of a multitude of MPED achievement awards for contributions to composite materials development, processing, and manufacturing.
 

 
Oct. 24, 2014 2:30 p.m. - 3:25 p.m. - " Morphology and Physical Aging of Hairy Nanoparticle Assemblies"
Speaker: Hilmar Koerner, Air Force Research Laboratory
Location: Zimmer Hall, Room 414
Sponsored By: Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering
College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Cincinnati
 
Polymer grafted or hairy nanoparticles (HNP) have recently been explored as novel hybrids that overcome dispersion challenges that often impair conventional polymer-inorganic nanocomposites (PNCs) and offer a promising morphology/property suite for solvent- or matrix-free assemblies of HNPs (aHNPs). HNPs systems in the low graft density/high molecular weight (30-60vv) regime combine entanglement with high inorganic volume fraction, with initial observation of non-isotropic structure and novel mechanical and dielectric properties. The physical aging of the nano-confined amorphous polymer rich regions is expected to dominate long term stability. Scientifically, these densely packed assemblies present new challenges to understanding cooperative chain relaxation in 3D confined regions that are associated with high curvature and periodic volume fluctuations. For such materials, we discuss physical aging from enthalpy relaxation experiments of highly confined poly(styrene) and poly(methylmethacrylate) grafts. Physical aging is substantially suppressed at low s(s<0.05 - all SDPB or mushroom regime), when compared to their PNC counterparts at similar NP loadings. Furthermore, relaxation rate, distribution and fragility indicate that aHNPs with high s exhibit behavior similar to conventional PNCs and neat polymers at temperatures lower into the glassy state, however their physical aging behavior departs from behavior observed for neat polymer closer to Tg with a slowing of the enthalpy relaxation process.
 
Speaker Bio
Hilmar Koerner, Air Force Research Laboratory
Dr. Hilmar Koerner is currently a Research Chemist at the Air Force Research Laboratory at WPAFB working within the Organic Matrix Composite Materials and Processing group on high temperature polyimide thermoset processing and additive manufacturing. He received his PhD at the University of Clausthal (Germany), followed by a post-doctoral fellowship at Cornell University. He then held a University Assistant position at the University of Leoben (Austria) and Visiting Scientist position at Cornell University. His specialization is in X-ray scattering/diffraction and thermo-mechanical characterization of soft matter materials.

 
 
Oct. 31, 2014 2:30 p.m. - 3:25 p.m. - " Prediction of micellar properties from molecular simulation "
Speaker: Peter Koenig, Procter and Gamble
Location: Zimmer Hall, Room 414
Sponsored By: Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering
College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Cincinnati
 
Wormlike Micelles (WLMs) provide the basis for structure and rheology of many consumer products. The composition, including concentration of surfactants and level of additives such as perfumes and salt, critically controls the structure and rheological properties of WLM formulations. An extensive body of research is dedicated to the experimental characterization and modeling of properties of WLMs. However, the link to the molecular composition and micellar scale has only received limited attention, limiting rational design of WLM formulations. 
We have developed methods to predict properties of micelles including cross-sectional geometry and composition, persistence length (relating to the bending stiffness) and scission energy using molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations demonstrate that we are able to reproduce the impact of central formulation levers. This project is part of a collaborative effort between Procter and Gamble, U. Michigan, XSEDE, Oak Ridge National Labs and U. Cincinnati.
 


peter koenig

 
Speaker Bio
Peter Koenig, Procter and Gamble
Peter Koenig is a Senior Scientist in Modeling and Simulation at Procter and Gamble. He has degrees in Chemistry (MS, Technical University of Munich, Germany) and Physics (PhD, University of Paderborn, Germany). After graduating, Peter worked as a post-doctoral associate with Qiang Cui and Julie Mitchell in the Chemistry and Biochemistry departments at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Peter joined P&G in 2007. His work at the company is focused on question of soft matter and complex mixtures as they pertain to the stability and performance of consumer products.